Fortifying Your Memory With Supplements

As we age, we all want to avoid memory loss. Can supplements like ginkgo and ginseng help?

Memory loss worries many of us as we get older. You might wonder whether you'll become one of the 10 million baby boomers who develops Alzheimer's disease. Or, maybe you're simply seeking ways to fortify your memory with memory supplements, memory vitamins, or memory games.

Will these brain boosters really help our memory? WebMD talked with the experts to find out whether -- and which -- memory enhancers really work.

(Note: if you suspect you or someone you love may have Alzheimer's, it's important to seek medical advice.)

The Need for Memory Enhancers

Finding new ways to slow memory loss could produce astounding results. For example, if the onset of Alzheimer's could be delayed in today's population by an average of just one year, there would be about 210,000 fewer people with Alzheimer's 10 years from now. And that would produce a cost savings of $10 billion.

"The problem with prescription drugs is that they're extremely expensive and often have limited effectiveness during a short window of time," says Evangeline Lausier, MD, assistant clinical professor in medicine, Duke Integrative Medicine, Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C.

Memory Supplements With Potential

Although there are a variety of "brain boosters" on the market -- many chockfull of multiple substances -- most are lacking research to support their memory-enhancing claims.

Gingko biloba is one that shows more promise than many others and is commonly used in Europe for a type of dementia resulting from reduced blood flow, Lausier says. "Ginkgo biloba tends to improve blood flow in small vessels."

"A couple of meta-analyses and systematic reviews show that gingko biloba is helpful for dementia in about the same range as drugs being pushed very heavily to treat Alzheimer's," says Adriane Fugh-Berman, MD, an associate professor in the complementary and alternative medicine Master's program of the department of physiology and biophysics at Georgetown University School of Medicine.

Unfortunately, that's not all that successful, she adds, and the benefit doesn't appear to extend to those without memory problems.

Here are a few other memory supplements that may also have some potential but require much more study:

Omega-3 fatty acid. Omega-3 fish oil supplements have piqued great interest. Studies suggest that a higher intake of omega-3 fatty acid from foods such as cold-water fish, plant and nut oils, and English walnuts are strongly linked to a lower risk of Alzheimer's. However, thorough studies comparing omega-3s to placebo are needed to prove this memory benefit from supplements.

Huperzine A. Also known as Chinese club moss, this natural medicine works in a similar way as Alzheimer's drugs. But more evidence is needed to confirm its safety and effectiveness.

Acetyl-L-carnitine. Some studies suggest that this amino acid might help Alzheimer's patients with memory problems. It may provide a greater benefit to people with early onset and a fast rate of the disease.

Vitamin E. Although vitamin E apparently doesn't decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's, it may slow its progression. Recent studies have raised concerns about an increased risk of deaths in unhealthy people who take high doses of vitamin E, so be sure to consult with your doctor before taking this supplement.

Ginseng. An herb that's sometimes used together with ginkgo biloba, ginseng may help with fatigue and quality of life, Fugh-Berman tells WebMD. But any benefit for memory, she says, has shown up mainly in a subset of study participants.

Ginkgo Biloba for Memory Loss? With Caution

One of the top-selling herbs in the United States, ginkgo biloba has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine.

A National Institute on Aging (NIH) ginkgo trial of more than 200 healthy adults older than 60 showed no improvement in memory or concentration. It is possible that doses higher than the 120 milligrams used daily in this six-week trial could be effective. Look for results of current large, long-term trials, such as the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine's study with 3,000 volunteers. These will help to confirm whether or not ginkgo biloba can help prevent dementia or enhance memory in healthy people.

Some research suggests that ginkgo biloba is effective for early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Ginkgo biloba may be as effective as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drugs such as donepezil (Aricept). Studies have also indicated that ginkgo biloba may be helpful for cerebral insufficiency, a decreased flow of blood to the brain from clogged blood vessels.

However, a 2006 Cochrane review of several ginkgo biloba studies concluded that ginkgo biloba's benefits for dementia or cognitive impairment is inconsistent.

Ginkgo biloba is available in tablets, capsules, teas, and fortified foods. Do not use ginkgo biloba seeds, which can be very toxic. Tea bags often contain 30 milligrams of ginkgo biloba extract, while a typical dose used in ginkgo biloba studies is 80 to 240 milligrams daily by mouth in 2 to 3 divided doses.

Although ginkgo biloba is generally safe, you should be aware of its blood-thinning properties. Stop using ginkgo biloba or use caution before surgery or dental procedures. Your risk for bleeding is also greater if you are taking blood thinners such as aspirin or warfarin. Also, it is possible that ginkgo biloba affects insulin or blood sugar. So be cautious if you have diabetes or hypoglycemia, or if you take substances that affect blood sugar.

Minor side effects of ginkgo biloba may include headache, nausea or intestinal problems.

Memory Enhancers That May Be Unsafe

Before adding any memory supplements to your diet, have a pharmacist check for potential interactions with any drugs or supplements you're taking, advises Lausier.

"And, remember that 'natural' isn't always safe," she says. "When you think about nature, you often think of beautiful and harmless. But think about a lion and a wildebeest -- that's nature, too."

Bacopa. Used for millennia in India, bacopa is an Ayurvedic herb that shows some promise for memory problems, says Lausier. But it is an example of a memory supplement that carries a higher risk of drug interactions. For this reason, she doesn't recommend using it until further study is conducted.

DHEA. A hormone that declines with age, DHEA has garnered lots of interest. Taken long-term or in high doses, however, it may increase the risk for certain types of cancer, as well as other serious side effects.

As you evaluate other potential memory supplements, keep in mind that the FDA does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. This makes it harder for you to assess their strength, purity, and safety. Fugh-Berman advises doing your own research on effectiveness and adverse effects, using reliable, unbiased sources.

Changing Your Lifestyle, Enhancing Your Memory

"For Alzheimer's and an aging brain," says Lausier, "I push a plant-based diet, eliminating red meat, additives, pesticides -- go organic, if you can." Sometimes it's what you're not eating that produces the positive effect, she says.

She also recommends the "commonsense" steps such as not smoking and avoiding too much caffeine or alcohol. "Some of these changes may make more difference in the outcome than a lot of expensive drugs or supplements."

Challenging your brain to learn new things is another important way to prevent memory loss, she says. It might involve learning a foreign language, an instrument, or a computer program, for example. "It doesn't matter if you're successful," she says. "Just the act of trying turns on parts of your brain that are getting cobwebs."

Exercise apparently also can help enhance memory in a variety of ways. For example, it generates blood flow and formation of nerve cells in a portion of the brain called the dentate gyrus. And, it reduces other risk factors, such as cardiovascular disease, indirectly enhancing brain health.

One recent study underscored that it's never too late to reap the memory benefits ofexercise. A trial of 152 adults with mild cognitive impairment, aged 70 to 80, compared the cognitive benefits of B vitamins with aerobic exercise. After one year, the walkers fared better with memory tests.

By Annie Stuart
WebMD Feature

Reviewed by Michael W. Smith, MD

SOURCES:
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database web site: "Natural Medicines in the Clinical Management of Alzheimer's Disease."

The Cochrane Collaboration, Cochrane Reviews web site: "Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of dementia," "Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia."

MedlinePlus web site, "Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.)."

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine web site: "Herbs at a Glance: Ginkgo."

Adriane Fugh-Berman MD, associate professor, complementary and alternative medicine, department of physiology and biophysics, Georgetown University.

Evangeline Lausier, MD, assistant clinical professor in medicine, Duke Integrative Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C.

Reviewed on April 12, 2008